How to Build Models Using Machine Learning for Text Analysis

Posted By :Arun Singh |28th January 2020



Every organization uses documents to distribute, improve, and modify their services or products. Natural Language Processing (NLP), a subfield of artificial intelligence and computer science, focuses on the science of using machine learning for text analysis and extracting insights and information from the given text or conversation flow.


With the help of machine learning solutions and techniques, organizations can solve common data problems such as identifying different categories of users, identifying the purpose of a text, and accurately identifying different stages of user reviews and feedback. If the text data can be analyzed using deep learning models, then the correct answers can be created. 


As an experiential provider of AI development services, Oodles AI provides a comprehensive guide to use ML techniques to understand text data and solve all the text problems for your service/products.


Organize your Data


IT teams have to deal with a huge amount of data every day. The first step in approaching the text and solving the text-related problems is to edit or gather information in accordance with its relevance.

For example, let's use a dashboard with the keyword "Fight." In editing information such as tweets or social media posts with this keyword, we will need to categorize them based on content relatedness. A potential policy is to report cases of physical abuse to local authorities.

Therefore, the details need to be separated based on the context of the word. Does the word in the context indicate that a structured game such as a boxing match or does it mean that its context refers to a conflict or clash that does not involve physical assault? 

This creates a need for labels to identify relevant texts (indicating physical conflict or rage) and inappropriate texts (all other keyword content). Labeling data and training a deep learning model, therefore, produces quick and easy problem-solving results with text data.


Clean your Data


After collecting your data, it will need to be cleaned to teach a successful and seamless model. Here are other ways to clean your data;

  • Get rid of non-alphanumeric characters: Although non-alphanumerics like symbols (financial symbols, punctuation) can hold important details, it can make data difficult to analyze a few models. One of the best ways to deal with this is to remove them or prevent them from text-based operations, such as the use of a hyphen in the word "full time."
  • Use Note: Login involves breaking the string sequence into several pieces called tokens. Selected tokens can be sentences (punctuation) or words (word punctuation). In the repetition of sentences (also known as part of sentences), a piece of text is broken down into elements of its elements, while the touch of words breaks the text to the names of its elements.
  • Use Lemmatization: Lemmatization is an effective way to purify data using analytic words and morphological analytics to reduce words related to their normal language base form, known as Lemma. For
    example, Lemmatizations removes entries to return a word to its base or dictionary.

Use Accurate Data Representation


Algorithms cannot analyze data in text formats, so data should be displayed in our programs in the list of algorithms that the algorithms can process. This is called vectorization.

The natural way to do this would be to enter each code as a number for the reader to read each word's composition in a dataset; however, this is not possible. Therefore, the most effective way to represent data in our systems or classifier is to associate a unique number with each name. As a result, each sentence is represented by a long list of numbers.

In a representation model called Bag of Words (BOW), it is often referred to as the frequency of known words and not the sequence or sequence of words in the text. All you need to do is to decide on the most effective way of designing the vocabulary of the tokens (known words) and how to put their presence in the text.

The BOW method is based on the idea that the more often a word appears in a text, the more it represents its meaning.


Inspect your Data


After processing and interpreting your data using machine learning models, it is important to check it for errors. An efficient way to visualize experimental data is by using a confusion matrix. It's so-called to find out if the system is confusing two labels. For example, the relevant and inappropriate category.

The confusion matrix also called the error matrix, allows you to see the output of an algorithm. It displays the details in the table layout, where each row of the matrix represents a part of the predicted label and each column represents a part in the label itself.

In our example, we trained the distinction to distinguish between non-physical combat (such as a non-violent human rights organization). Taking the sample was 22 events - physical battles and 10 non-physical battles, the confusion of chaos will represent the results in the table setting as below:

In this category of combat, of the 12 actual physical conflicts, the algorithm predicted that there were seven illegal battles or protests. In addition, the program predicted that in the 10 actual protests, there were three fights. Correct guessing is highlighted - the following is a forecast (TP) and a true negative (TN) forecast respectively. Other results are false positives (FN) and false positives (FP).


Therefore, in interpreting and validating the results of our predictions using this model, we should use the correct words used as class readers. Words that are appropriate to distinguish non-literary battles include protests, marches, non-violence, peace, and demonstration.

After properly analyzing written data, systems can produce appropriate answers.


Chatbots for Leveraging Text Data to Generate Responses


After cleaning, analyzing, and interpreting text data, the next step is to return the correct answer.

The response models used in chatbots are of two types generally - replication-based models and reproductive models. Recovery-based models using a set of automated responses are automatically available for installation. This uses a heuristic type to select the correct answer. On the other hand, reproductive models do not use predefined responses; instead, new inputs are generated using machine translation algorithms.

Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages and have valid use cases. First, to be defined and documented in advance, the methods used for retrieval do not make language errors; however, if there is no predefined input for anonymous input (such as a name), these methods may not generate the correct responses.

The pseudonyms are more advanced and "smarter" as the answers are made on the go and based on the input context. However, since they require extensive training and answers not written before, they can make grammatical errors.

In both approaches, the length of discussion can present challenges. As soon as the input or discussion, it becomes more difficult to make the answers. In open fields, the discussion is limited and input can take any opportunity. Therefore, open domains cannot be built into a chatbot based on recovery. However, in a closed domain, where there are an input and exit limit (you can only ask a set of questions), return-based bots work much better.

Generative communication systems can handle closed domains but may require a smart device to hold long conversations in an open domain.


The challenges that come with lengthy or open discussions include the following:


  1. Integrating language and physical context: In longer conversations, people retain what is said and it can be difficult for the system to process it if such information is used in the discussion. Therefore, this requires integrating the themes in each word made, and this can be challenging.
  2. Maintaining Semantic Adherence: While most programs are trained to produce an answer to a specific question or input, they may not be able to produce the same or consistent response if the input is reproduced. For example, you want the same answer as “what are you doing?” and "what's your job?".
  3. Finding Purpose: To ensure the answer is consistent with the context, the system has to understand the user's intent and this has been difficult. Because of this, many systems produce a standard response where they are not needed. For example, "that's great!" as a general answer may not be appropriate for input such as "I live alone, out of the yard".

For these reasons, retrospective-based approaches are still more effective with interview methods or other discussion forums.




Suspicious text data for translation programs requires deep learning models to properly interpret written data and provide feedback on it. Pre-processing techniques for planning, cleaning, classifying, representing, and evaluating data not only perform the functionality of these models in data analysis but also improve the accuracy of the output or response.



About Author

Arun Singh

Arun is a MEAN stack developer. He has a fastest and efficient way of problem solving techniques. He is very good in JavaScript and also have a little bit knowledge of Java and Python.

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